Siberia - land of beautiful natural landscapes, which are of great ecological value. There are majestic mountains, wild untouched forests, plains, wild rivers and quiet lakes in its territory.
More than 60% of the territory is covered by forests, which are not only a source of rawwood, but also the habitat of game animals and growing more than 1000 species of plants, many of which are of value for people. Landscapes of the southern and middle taiga of Western Siberia are woven from an intricate pattern of swamps, intertwined thin threads, islands and whole tracts of forest, including leisurely taiga rivers. West Siberian Plain - the largest in the world, its characteristic feature is swampiness. The Vasyugan swamp - one of the largest wetlands in the world, is located between the rivers Ob and Irtysh, in the territory of Vasyugan Plain, lies within Tomsk, Novosibirsk and Omsk regions.
Siberia - one of the few regions of the planet, where the meeting with the virgin nature is possible. Journey to the edge of wild animals and ancient cedars complete your collection of strong impressions and rare trophies.
Taiga is represented by dozens of unique species of plants. The most common are cedar, fir, spruce forests with an admixture of aspen and ravines and valleys of streams. The vast pine forests grow on sandstone deposits.
The pure air and the power of the Siberian taiga refill health and energy potential of wildlife enthusiasts. Rest in a green corners of Siberia perfectly combined with the picking of the gifts of nature (berries, mushrooms, nuts. For lovers of hunting, summer and winter fishing there are true unique conditions here!
Altai - it is the country of unforgettable beauty and the majestic mountains. The Altai Mountains are a complex system of the highest Siberian ridges separated by deep river valleys and vast intramontane and hollows. The Altai Mountains - a complex system of mountain ranges, the Russian part of which is located mainly in the territory of the Altai Republic and partly in the Altai region. It is divided into Southern Altai (South-West), South-East and East Altai, Central, Northern and North-Eastern Altai, Northwest Altai.
The Altai Mountains - the highest mountain region of Siberia. For hundreds of years the harsh and beautiful Altai peaks attract travelers, scientists, tourists, climbers, artists, photographers, as well as pilgrims, because many of the local mountains are local shrines. The first definition that is most likely come to mind at the mention of this land "Russian Tibet", foreign tourists, who know a lot about mountains call Altai "Siberian Alps". However, for indigenous Altai people a comparison with other mountains is useless, Altai for them - the first and unique.
Ridges with alpine relief - this is the most elevated part of their axial (up to 4000-4500 m), strongly dissected by erosion and frost weathering. The main forms of relief here are pinnacled peaks and karlings, kars, trough valleys with lacustrine basins, hills, landslides and debris stones.
The highest point of Siberia is in Altai - Belukha Mountain (4506 m). In Altai there are more than 300 caves. One of the most interesting caves - Large Pryamuhinskaya length of 320 m. The entrance to the cave through the mine depth of 40 m. The longest cave in Altai - Museum, more than 700 meters, is located near the village of Karakol. On giant plateaus, there are numerous monuments of ancient history. According to one version Altai is the ancestral home of human race.
Kuznetsk Alatau is a mountainous region located in southwest Siberia. Kuznetsk Alatau Mountains located in the territory of the Kemerovo region and the Republic of Khakassia. Length of more than 300 km. Height up to 2178 meters. Mostly mountainous taiga (fir, spruce, cedar), above 1300-1500 m - moss and lichen, shrubs and rocky mountain tundra with patches of birch and aspen forests. The climate of Kuznetsk Alatau is relatively cold and wet. A powerful snow cover forms in winter from 2 to 4 meters. With increase it is usually replaced by the dark taiga with fir, cedar and spruce. With increase of 1300-1400 m alpine tundra zone begins. In the vast valleys meadow steppe dominated by deciduous forests above. They rise to a height of 1000-1200 m.
Alatau in Turkic means "motley mountains". This name accurately reflects the first impression of the bright colors of the Kuznetsk Alatau. White flecks of snow lie near the colorful sub-alpine meadows, blue sky reflected in the mirror of lakes, and the clouds are creeping so low that often cling to the sharp gray top of rocks. Ridges are unassailable and are covered with snow all the year round, so they were give n the name - Belogorie.
The nature of Kuznetsk Alatau is unique. Nowhere there is such diversity of subalpine meadows and nowhere they do not descend so low as in the Alatau mountains. The abundance of glaciers at unusually low altitudes - 1200-1500 m. is unique in the Kuznetsk Alatau. There are 32 glaciers. Huge snowdrifts melted around the edges, feed rivers in the summer heat. Sometimes there are so much water from melting snows or after abundant rainsm, so it does not have time to soak into the ground and runs directly on the surface. "Stone River" - kurum flows from the slopes of the mountains, so vividly describe the abundance of rock falls. They consist of stones several times more than the human growth. Fearless alpine plants constrain steady movement of rock flow.
In addition to lichens and mosses many plants listed in the Red Book in the Kuznetsk Alatau find shelter in the Kuznetsk Alatau, among them "flower troll." The fauna of this region is represented by maral, elk, squirrels, partridges and bears. The rivers breed grayling.
Sayan (The Sayan Mountains) - a common name for the two mountain ranges in the south of Siberia. Distinguish West Sayan (length 650 km, height up to 3121 m), consisting of a peaked mountain ranges without glaciations separated by hollows, and the East Sayan (length of about 1000 km, height up to 3491 m) with typical ranges Mid-bearing glaciers. The rivers belong to the basin of the Yenisei. On the slopes of the mountain taiga prevails, turning into mountain tundra. The southwestern part of West Sayan borders on the Altai. Its main ridge - Kyzyl-Taiga Mount (3121 m). Ranges of the Western Sayan characterized by steep slopes, indented relief, extensive areas of stone placers. Eastern Sayan stretches almost at right angles to the West in the north-west to south-east of the Yenisei River to Lake Baikal. The northwest ridges form a system of "BELOGORIYA" got its name from the nonmelting snow on the tops all the year round. In the central part, in the upper reaches of Kazyr and Kizir rivers several ridges form a "knot" with the highest point - the Grand peak (2982 m). In the southeast, there are the highest and most inaccessible ridges - Great Sayan and others. Here there is also the highest point in the Eastern Sayan - Mount Munch-Sardyk (3491 m). There is also a large number of beautiful waterfalls.
Between the ridges of the Sayan Mountains there are more than a dozen cavities, the most famous of which - Minusinsk Basin, known for its ancient archaeological sites.
Almost everywhere in the Sayan Mountains coniferous taiga spruce-pine-fir forests and light deciduous forests dominate. High-mountain landscapes located above the forest, with harsh and long winters, short and cool summer, strong winds. Tundra alternates with extensive stone fields almost without vegetation.
The fauna is as rich as the flora. There are numerous animal tracks. In the forest and the mountains, you can see Siberian deer, moose, musk deer, squirrels, chipmunks, hares. Among the birds the most numerous are nutcracker, jay, often heard a woodpecker, crossbill, pine grosbeak, grouse, partridge, grouse. There is Siberian grayling, goldilocks, many trout in rivers. Typical representatives of the bloodsucking dipteral insects - mosquitoes, gnats, midges are not numerous, and they absent in a well-blown river valleys.
Taiga landscape, the abundance of mountain streams, waterfalls, lakes and striking in its beauty places almost untouched wilderness, the relative ease of travel routes - these causes attract attention of growing number of outdoor enthusiasts. There are are two unique wildlife reserves in Sayan: Sayano-Shushenskiy in the Western and Poles in the Eastern Sayan Mountains.
The Baikal mountains surrounding the valley and Lake Baikal, consist of several mountain ranges. Mountains, lying on the west side of Lake Baikal, are called Baikal Mountains. They consist of two parallel ridges. The ridge of eastern shore of Lake Baikal, or Transbaikal mountains, divided over the river Selenga and Barguzin. The Transbaikal mountains make direct outskirts of the plateau located behind them. The plateau reached of the greatest altitude in the southeastern part - 2000 meters. Range in this place becomes alpine, passing in Sayan Mountains.
Peaks, slopes and valleys of the Baikal Mountains are rich in forest vegetation, especially the northwestern part of them. Coniferous trees dominate here. Larch, pine, spruce, fir, cedar part grow here. There are many deciduous trees: birch, aspen, poplar. In the valleys of the flow of rivers and streams, mountain ash, wild cherry, alder, hawthorn are not uncommon. The mountain sides are decorated by profusely flowering shrubs: rhododendron or rosemary in Siberia, its dark pink flowers. Meadows and valleys between mountains dapple under the carpet of bright colors, lilies, martagon lilies, primroses, peonies and others.
There is a lot of wild animals in the forests of Baikal Mountains: elk, northern and red deer, roe deer, musk deer. Predators also live here bears, wolves, bitterns and wolverines.
Siberia is called the land of high-water rivers and numerous lakes. There is a network of tens of thousands of lakes here. This is one of the most lacustrine regions of Russia. Siberia is bigger than Europe by half and has the remarkable diversity of natural conditions with an abundance of natural reservoir. Pristine, untouched nature, crystal clear water and pure air, combination of high mountains and bottomless depth impress by their beauty - that the wealth that is open not only for residents of nearby places, but also for people from remote regions. In the XIX century of the many unique places of Siberia were known of the presence of the cleanest lakes, mineral waters, healing mud, with excellent climate data.
In the northern lowlands of Siberia lakes are round and called sirharga in Yakut, which means "the eye of the earth." The origin of the many lakes in Eastern Siberia is closely appertains to permafrost. There is one of the largest lakes - Lake Baikal in the Eastern Siberia, as well as a large lake Taimyr, located northward of the Polar Circle. Many Siberian lakes are very salinized. Primary mineralization of these lakes, apparently associated with the minerals contained in the buried ice. The first scientific study of mineral waters and the opening of the first health resorts in Russia are connected with Tsar Peter I in the XVIII century. Nowadays, people from all over the world enjoy mineral waters of Siberian lakes, as the healing properties of water are able to cure the most severe disease.
There are many lakes in mountain regions of Siberia too. Most of them are small and are located in the basins of glacial kars in alpine zone or in lowering between the ridges and hills. But there are large lakes, such as Lake Baikal, Teletskoe, Markakol, Todzha, Ulugh-Khol and dozens of others. Some of them are the largest source of fresh water on the planet.
Fishing enthusiasts from all over the world come to these wild places, to enjoy the unity with nature.
In the mountains of southern Siberia the origins of the great rivers of northern Asia are located – the Ob, the Irtysh, the Yenisey, the Lena and the Amur. Most of the rivers of the country is mountainous: they flow in narrow valleys with steep rocky slopes. Mountain rivers mainly feed on spring melt water and summer-autumn rains. Only some of them starting in the high ridges of the Altai, Eastern Sayan and Kuznetsk Alatau, also receive water from melting glaciers and "eternal" snow in the summer.
The Angara River flows across the Eastern Siberia. It is the only river flowing out of Lake Baikal. Despite the fact that it falls into many rivers. The Angara - right and the most high-water inflow of the Yenisei. The Angara has got many inflows, and all of them begin in the mountains, a major inflow of the Angara is the Selenga river. In the basin of the Angara River there are about six thousand lakes.
The name of the river comes from the Evenki-Buryat words meaning "gaping", which roughly corresponds to the concept of "mouth." Another interpretation of the name of the river in the language of the peoples from Predbajkaliye from the word "anga" - "cleft" or "gorge". This interpretation is also true, as in the area of Angara River flows through the cleft. On the banks of the Angara many sites of prehistoric man mammoth hunters, cave paintings and other waste products were found.
The Angara flows through the territory of Eastern Siberia from south to north, repeatedly changing its direction. Its valley is well designed by water for many millennia. In some areas, it extends up to 12-15 km, and in hard outcrop places narrows to 300-400 meters.
Irkutsk - the administrative center of the homonymous region, is the fifth largest city in Siberia, stands on the banks of the Angara.
The Amur River - one of the six largest rivers of Asia. The history of the development of the Amur was predetermined by great interest of near of states, including Russia. In ancient times, the shores of the Amur River were places sufficiently distant from any civilization, inhabited by nomadic tribes. A considerable segment of its flew through the territory of Manchuria, the historic area, now covering the eastern lands of Mongolia and the north-eastern region of China. Since 1858, in accordance with the contract signed between China and Russia the state border line was held along the line of Amur River (the left coast retreated into the possession of the Russian Empire, and the right – of China).
The Amur is not only the name of the famous river. In China, it was named Heilongjiang, which means "river of the Black Dragon." Chinese are very sensitive to nature, very precisely noticed two features of the river. Firstly, waters of the Amur are really dark. And secondly, the channel of the Amur is very tortuous and during its movement resembles a snake or, in the representation of the peoples of the East, the dragon.
Though The Amur is still considered an important waterway of the Far East and Siberia, with the release of the Sea of Japan, it is not suitable for regular commercial traffic. The fact that the surface of the river is covered with ice at the beginning of November, and becomes clear only in the middle of the spring, that is to say the ice is on the river about 170 days a year.
In the Amur River is home to about a hundred species of fish, which puts the Amur among the rivers with the most diverse water world. Among them - the pink salmon, chum salmon, carp, crucian carp and many other species.
The Yenisei is one of the most powerful rivers in the world - in its mouth a person who is on board, does not see any banks. The Yenisei has all the characteristics of unique because it is one of the largest rivers in the world, the border between Western and Eastern Siberia, the deepest and most abundant river in Russia. A source of the Yenisei is alpine lake Kara-Balik in the Eastern Sayan Mountains. At the confluence of the two parts of the Yenisei River there is the city of Kyzyl. The basin area of the Yenisei - one of the biggest in the world and in Russia. In Russia, the Yenisei is the second after Ob and ranks seventh in the world. The total length of waterway of the Yenisei is 5075 km. Even sea-going vessels can sail for the depth of the Yenisei. Maximum depth, measured on the Yenisei, up to 70 m. And at the mouth of the river width up to 75 km.
The name of this famous Siberian river in Evenk means "big water" - "Jonas."
Also on the Yenisei stands one of the largest cities in Siberia - Krasnoyarsk.
And on the Yenisei River one of the masterpieces of Russian industrial is situated- Sayano-Shushenskaya Dam.
The Irtysh begins as a tiny mountain stream on the ice slopes of the Mongolian Altai, but turns into a violent Siberian river. Irtysh with Ob has a total length of 5410 km and ranks the sixth among the longest rivers in the world (after the Nile, the Amazon, the Mississippi, the Yangtze and the Yellow river). The water of Irtysh is fresh and mild: it is one of the cleanest and low-mineralized rivers in the world.
This great river has seen a lot during its long life. On its banks ancient people settled, whose names we will never know. The Irtysh with the Ob - the longest river in Russia. The most common version of the origin of the name of the river - from Ket expression "irtsis" ("ir" - rapid, torrent, "cis" river). Most likely, the name appeared in the middle course of the Irtysh, where, according to archaeological findings, ancestors of Ket people lived, native minorities of Siberia. Excavations have shown that along the Irtysh River in ancient times Aryan, Scythian, and, in future, Hungarian and Bulgarian tribes lived. A considerable part of the gold artifacts stored at the St. Petersburg Hermitage, found in the mounds near the river.
On the Irtysh stands the largest Siberian city of Omsk, and at the confluence of the Irtysh and the Ob - Khanty-Mansiysk.
In the language of the peoples of Siberia the Lena - "Big River." This is a very accurate name, considering that the Lena is the largest river in Russia, whose pool is entirely within the country. The path of this great river - 4480 km. Like all the great Siberian rivers, on its way north, the Lena flows into the Arctic Ocean. About 150 km from the ocean begins extensive Lena Delta, where it dissipates melancholy into many pieces. This world's largest river delta extends over 45,000 km2, surpassing the size of the most famous in the world of the Nile Delta. The stream is separated by thousands of islands, forming channels and lakes.
The slopes of the Lena river often covered with pine trees, rocky mountains and occasionally - meadows. Surly banks of the Lena poorly populated, its channel, with rare exceptions, bordered by impenetrable thicket. Here, as thousands years ago, nature prevails, not going to give way to a man. Miracle of nature called the sand dunes on the right bank of the Lena River. They stretch more than 1 km and create the illusion of hot and dry desert.
Lena takes place in the permafrost zone, so it and its main tributaries feed on mainly melted snow and rain water. Water rises during dispensing of 6-8 meters upstream and 10 m in lower stream. Spring break turns into a powerful element and is often accompanied by large ice jams. The Lena length is the tenth among the world's major rivers.
The Ob with the Irtysh - the longest river in Russia, the longest continuous water flow in Russia (5410 km) and the second in Asia. The river flows over a large West Siberian plain, covered with taiga, with many lakes and swamps, and has exceptionally flat terrain. Different peoples who inhabited the Ob basin, gave it different names. But each of them has sought to reflect the unprecedented size and power of the river, as well as its characteristics vary depending on the course. Komi called her Obva- "Snowy River". The banks of the Ob began to develop in the Stone Age 15-20 thousands years ago. Nearthe city of Surgut found the remains of ancient sites of more than a hundred settlements and burial grounds, also 280 petroglyphic drawing survived of IV-I millennium BC. The discovery and arrangement of the Ob is an epoch of the history of Russia. The main part of the Ob is on the plain of Western Siberia and the mountains of southern Siberia. It flows through the Altai, Kuznetsk Alatau, Salairsky Ridge and Mountain Shoria. The number of rivers and lakes of the Ob basin is about hundreds and thousands. The river crosses several climatic zones: from semi-desert in the south to tundra in the north. Most of the basin is covered by taiga and swamps.
There are about 50 species of fish in the Ob. The most valuable species are: sturgeon, sturgeon, white salmon, whitefish, broad whitefish, cisco, peled. The water in the Ob has high organic content and low oxygen content.
Several major Siberian cities stands on the Ob, including the capital of Siberia - Novosibirsk.
At the boundary of the polar cap, a plain stretches that during the short summer all is covered with magnificent flowers. Most of the Siberian tundra - the vast plains, dotted with lakes and marshes, covered with a carpet of moss. Tundra stretches strip along the northern coast of Siberia at 3200 km. Polar day in the northern parts of the tundra lasts three months of the year, but the rays of the sun fall on the surface at an acute angle, and the average summer temperature is typically less than 5 ° C. During the polar night, the sun does not rise, but the moon is shining and sometimes fantastic Northern Lights blaze; the temperature may drop to -44 °C. The vegetation in the tundra is perennial, stunted, creeping across the ground to protect against permanent cold winds. The permafrost covers a large part of the tundra, but there are higher plants - dwarf birch and larch.
Often, in the tundra, bones and huge (up to 4.5 m) mammoth tusks are found and sometimes entirely frozen mammoth carcasses. Once they lived in a variety on the territory of northern Eurasia.
In winter, many animals, such as deer, go to the south to warmer areas, like most birds. In summer, lakes and islands are great places for waterfowl nesting. In Western Siberia marshy lowlands dominated along the river Ob up to the Urals, in the lower reaches of the Ob gray cranes and other large birds spend the summer.
In the end of summer and autumn tundra flames: yellow, orange and red colors from an infinite number of bright flowers, berries and autumn leaves.
Siberia - mostly taiga region, especially in the eastern part. Taiga zone extends here from the tundra to the frontiers of the Mongolian border in the space of about 5 million km2. Taiga covers a wide Siberian Plateau, runs up the steep slopes of the ridge and gets down narrow gorges in marshy lowlands. Soils and vegetation of the taiga zone of Siberia develop in more favorable conditions than in the tundra areas. But the climate is harsh, sharply continental. Rainfall is less than in western Russia, the power of the snow cover is usually small, and permafrost is distributed. Relief is more rugged than in neighboring Western Siberia. There are much less swamps in the forest than in the tundra, and they occur mainly in low-lying areas and on flat watershed.
Different trees grow in the East Siberian taiga: pine, cedar, spruce and fir. There are sometimes birch, alder, aspen. Closer to the Pacific Ocean, other types of trees are found. The most basic tree in the forest - a larch: two out of three boreal trees necessarily apply to this amazing species.
Siberians love larch for everything: for its beauty, the unusual smell nascent needles, for a hot fire in the furnace, for the fortress houses and fences. More recently, in Siberia bed made only from larch, which gave health, a good rest and sleep well.
Siberian Plain - one of the most extensive lowland plains of the globe. It stretches from north to south for 2,500 km, and from the Urals to the Yenisey River at 1500 km. This plain has a flat surface, slightly inclined to the Arctic Ocean. In many places, it is strongly swampy. From the glacial epoch there are numerous small hills and hollows. The Ob and its tributaries, crossing the Siberian lowland, is noted for slowness of its course and winding channel. Most of the West Siberian Plain is covered by coniferous forests and not much settled by people, but at the same time there are large industrial infrastructure facilities, railroads, many villages and cities, including the capital of Siberia - Novosibirsk.
There is also a lot of flowers, mushrooms and berries in the steppe.
The greatest Siberian steppes located on the plain. Despite the lack of a picturesque forest, steppe attracts tourists thanks inexpressible feeling of spaciousness and freedom. Also steppe lakes attract many people, many of which have salt water, like the Dead Sea. Picturesque lakes are remnants of an ancient sea that once was in this area. Researchers and lovers of antiquities find here hundreds of ancient burial mounds, megalithic structures, the remains of the caravan parks, which stayed door merchants who followed the Silk Road to China. Petroglyphs marked on ancient objects, preserved since the Bronze Age.
Modern Siberian fauna is extremely diverse in species. Deep mystery remains a huge world of invertebrates, the number of their species are difficult to name even approximately. A modern vertebrate fauna of Siberia consists of hundreds of species, among them dozens of species of fish, about four hundred species of birds, many big predators and herbivores. Such diversity of species of aquatic animals is difficult to find in the world.
Of course, there isn’t much amphibians and reptiles in Siberia. These cold-blooded animals clearly do not fit the harsh conditions of Siberia. However, they often make themselves felt. There are snakes, including dangerous to humans, such as vipers in the steppes and mountains. Birds - the most notable in Siberia. They decorate and enliven every corner of nature with their singing. It isn’t difficult to find eagles, falcons, owls, black vulture and other birds of prey, flocks of cranes and snow-white swans on the blue surface of the lake. There are all kinds of birds in Siberia! In Siberia, the birds nest absolutely everywhere! And in a forest glade on the ground and on the tops of the four hundred-year-old pine trees and in the mud near the lake, on the walls of various buildings and even hanging over the water or hiding in burrows of ground squirrels.
Mammals of Siberia - elks, Siberian stags, reindeer, deer, mountain goats, wild boar, fox, sable, muskrats, squirrels, mink, squirrels, foxes and dozens of others.
There are also many big predators in Siberia such as bears, tigers, lynxes, wolves, jackals and many smaller predators.